Article Abstract

Periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in a Greek adult population

Authors: Nikolaos A. Chrysanthakopoulos, Aggelos A. Oikonomou


Background: Several epidemiological studies have been carried out pointing towards an association between periodontal pathogens and various systemic disorders or diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD), respiratory diseases, allergies, diabetes mellitus and systemic infections. The mentioned systemic infections and inflammations mediate through biomarkers such an association. Based on the mentioned association it has also been proposed a possible relationship between periodontal disease and ACVD.
Methods: Data were collected from dental clinical examinations and the health questionnaires of 1,850 individuals, 938 males and 912 females, aged 49 to 80 years. The participants were inter-viewed and under-gone an oral clinical examination. The questionnaire contained questions regarding oral health status of the participants, epidemiological variables and several types of ACVD. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate possible associations between all ACVD and their subgroups, heart attack (HA), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiac arrhythmias (CA) and high blood pressure, and periodontal disease indices. In addition, odds ratios (ORs) were assessed after adjusting for gender, smoking, socioeconomic status, educational level and oral hygiene follow-up frequency.
Results: A significant association between gingival inflammation, (OR =6.14, P<0.000), clinical attachment loss (CAL) (OR =1.45, P=0.044), bleeding on probing (BOP) (OR =2.52, P=0.040), and ACVD was found, whereas no association was detected between deep periodontal pockets and ACVD.
Conclusions: Significant associations between investigated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and periodontal disease variables, such as gingival inflammation, CAL and BOP were assessed.


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